SS2018: Bone (including joints and articular cartilage)
Summary Stage 2018
**Bone (including joints and articular cartilage)**
**C400-C403, C408-C414, C418-C419**
C400 Long bones of upper limb, scapula and associated joints
C401 Short bones of upper limb and associated joints
C402 Long bones of lower limb and associated joints
C403 Short bones of lower limb and associated joints
C408 Overlapping lesion of bones, joints and articular cartilage of limbs
C409 Bone of limb, NOS
C410 Bones of skull and face and associated joints (excludes mandible C411)
C412 Vertebral column
C413 Rib, sternum, clavicle, and associated joints
C414 Pelvic bones, sacrum, coccyx and associated joints
C418 Overlapping lesion of bones, joints and articular cartilage
C419 Bone, NOS
**Note 1:** The following sources were used in the development of this schema
* SEER Extent of Disease 1988: Codes and Coding Instructions (3rd Edition, 1998) (https://seer.cancer.gov/archive/manuals/EOD10Dig.3rd.pdf)
* SEER Summary Staging Manual-2000: Codes and Coding Instructions (https://seer.cancer.gov/tools/ssm/)
* Collaborative Stage Data Collection System, version 02.05: https://cancerstaging.org/cstage/Pages/default.aspx
* Chapter 38 *Bone*, in the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2017) published by Springer International Publishing. Used with permission of the American College of Surgeons, Chicago, Illinois.
**Note 2:** Code 0 is not applicable for this schema.
**Note 3:** The cortex of a bone is the dense outer shell that provides strength to the bone; the spongy center of a bone is the cancellous portion. The periosteum of the bone is the fibrous membrane covering of a bone that contains the blood vessels and nerves; the periosteum is similar to the capsule on a visceral organ.
**Note 4:** Regional lymph nodes are defined as those in the vicinity of the primary tumor.
**Note 5:** Regional lymph node involvement is rare. If there is no mention of lymph node involvement clinically, assume that lymph nodes are negative.
(1) Fritz AG, Ries LAG (eds). **SEER Extent of Disease 1988: Codes and Coding Instructions (3rd Edition, 1998)**, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 98-2313, Bethesda, MD, 1998
(2) Young JL Jr, Roffers SD, Ries LAG, Fritz AG, Hurlbut AA (eds.). **SEER Summary Staging Manual-2000: Codes and Coding Instructions**, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 01-4969, Bethesda, MD, 2001.
(3) Collaborative Stage Work Group of the American Joint Committee on Cancer. **Collaborative Stage Data Collection System User Documentation and Coding Instructions, version 02.05.** American Joint Committee on Cancer (Chicago, IL)
(4) Gress, D.M., Edge, S.B., Gershenwald, J.E., et al. **Principles of Cancer Staging.** In: Amin, M.B., Edge, S.B., Greene, F.L., et al. (Eds.) AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. New York: Springer; 2017: 3-30
(5) Kneisl, J.S., Rosenberg, A.E., et al. **Bone**. In: Amin, M.B., Edge, S.B., Greene, F.L., et al. (Eds.) AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. New York: Springer; 2017: 471-486